Prevalence of food-induced anaphylaxis increases progressively and occurs in an unpredictable manner, seriously affecting the quality of life of patients. of the breastfeeding remain as yet unresolved. Conversation of allergens with the intestinal cell barrier together with a set of effector cells represents the primary pathways of food-induced anaphylaxis. After an antigen cross-links the IgEs around the membrane of effector cells, a complex intracellular signaling cascade is initiated, which leads cells to release preformed buy MS-275 mediators stored in their granules that are responsible for the acute symptoms of anaphylaxis. Afterward, they can also rapidly synthesize lipid compounds such as prostaglandins or leukotrienes. Cytokines or chemokines are also released, leading to the MGC20372 recruitment and activation of immune cells in the inflammatory microenvironment. Multiple factors that affect food-induced anaphylaxis are discussed in this review, paying special attention to dietary habits and environmental and genetic conditions. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: food-induced anaphylaxis, IgE, allergens, diet, mast cells, basophils Introduction The widely used definition of anaphylaxis as an adverse allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death is also accompanied by clinical criteria for diagnosis (1). Other definitions of anaphylaxis have been formulated to aid its diagnosis and management (2). It constitutes an alarming medical emergency (1, 3, 4), not only for the patient and members of the family, but sometimes also for the healthcare professionals involved. Death usually occurs because of respiratory or cardiac arrest as an aftershock of an anaphylactic attack (5). Although life-threatening episodes are uncommon, these events constitute an unpredictable risk and their prevalence is usually steadily increasing affecting up to 2% of the population (6). Hospital and critical care unit admissions are not common but continue to increase, doubling in frequency between 1998 and 2012 (7, 8). An accurate population-based estimate is usually difficult to obtain due to underdiagnosis and underreporting, as well as by the use of different clinical definitions for anaphylaxis and methods of case diagnosis in populations under study (9). Molecules such as histamine (HIS), tryptase, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins, among others, mediate the clinical manifestations of anaphylaxis. Secretion of these mediators occurs after an allergen cross-links the IgEs bound to mast cells (MCs) and basophils. However, IgE-independent buy MS-275 immune mechanisms may also be involved (3). Physiological state (3), as well as certain diseases and medications (10), are risk factors for anaphylaxis. buy MS-275 Cofactors such as drugs or exercise that can exacerbate or trigger acute anaphylactic episodes have been described (11C13). Specialist physicians and patients need to be aware of the relevant risk factors and cofactors in the context of long-term management and treatment of this condition. In this mini review, we summarize the physiological, genetic, and environmental aspects in the field of food allergy (FA) focusing special attention on anaphylactic reactions. Incidence of Food-Derived Anaphylaxis Food allergy is a serious and often life-threatening health concern that is increasing in frequency especially in the vulnerable pediatric population affecting 4% of children and 2C3% of the buy MS-275 adult population worldwide (14). The treatment requires changes in dietary habits and social behavior (15). FA is usually originated by a reaction of the immune system that results in non-tolerance of specific foods. In most patients, IgE mediates this immune disorder, although there are also IgE-independent cell-mediated allergies that are accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms (16), but they are not going to be analyzed in this review. More than 170 foods have been associated with type I allergies, the most common of which are milk, egg, wheat, fish, shellfish, peanuts, soy, and tree nuts, although the prevalence varies geographically (17). The two most frequent food allergens that induce severe and potentially lethal anaphylaxis are milk and egg, while the third differs between countries (18) being peanuts in the USA and Switzerland, wheat in Germany and Japan, tree nuts in Spain, and sesame in Israel (16). Foods and meals made up of hidden allergens at restaurants are a.